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Submit online at https://ih.msubmit.netImmunoHorizons' online submission system requires browsers where cookies and Javascript are enabled.  See Author Instructions for online submission requirements. 

After the manuscript has been checked by journal staff, the Corresponding Author will receive an email acknowledging receipt of the revised manuscript.  Please if you do not receive the acknowledgement email. 

For initial submission:

  • A format-neutral manuscript may be submitted for the first round of review. Manuscripts do not need to be formatted according to the ImmunoHorizons guidelines for the initial submission, except that all authors must be listed for each reference. 
    NOTE: Numbering of lines and pages, and easy-to-read figures will make the task of the reviewers and editors easier.
  • Either a PDF of the entire manuscript (text, figures and tables), or individual manuscript, figure, and table files may be uploaded to the system. If individual files are uploaded, the system then creates a single PDF for review purposes.

For all revised manuscripts:

  • Follow the Editorial Office instructions contained in the previous decision letter carefully and thoroughly.  A revised manuscript not returned within 9 months of the date of the decision letter will be considered a new manuscript and subject to a new, complete review. 
  • Individual manuscript, high resolution figure, and table files (even if they are unchanged from the previous submission) and a point-by-point reply to all referee comments must be uploaded to the system.  Authors should save copies for themselves of all the files in their original formats. 
  • The revised manuscript text must be marked to show changes using yellow highlighting (Microsoft Word files preferred).  Do not show deletions displayed by tracked changes because if the manuscript is accepted, this version will be immediately sent for publication.
  • High-resolution figure files must be submitted.  Figures must be in TIFF, EPS, or PDF format and prepared as described under Figures

In addition, please follow the MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION guidelines below:

Manuscript Preparation

A 12-point serif font, preferably Times New Roman, is required for all text, except within the figures. Do not use compressed type format. Double-space the entire manuscript; number each line and each page. Each of the following components should begin on a separate page:

  1. The Title Page must include the full title; a running title (not to exceed 60 characters); each author's full name as it should be published (first name, middle initial, last name) and the affiliations of all authors and their institutions, departments, or organizations (use the following symbols in this order to designate authors' affiliations: *, †, ‡, §, ¶, ||, #, **, ††, ‡‡, §§, ¶¶, || ||, ##). List the phone number, fax number, and e-mail address of the corresponding author on the title page.
  2. The Abstract must be 250 words or less.  Reference citations should not be included in the Abstract. The species of animals or species of origin of cells used in the manuscript must be clearly stated in the Abstract. Please ensure that the final few sentences (50 words or less) of the Abstract provide a succinct summary of the main point of the paper.
  3. The Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion sections should begin on separate pages in that order.
    • For flow cytometry experiments, authors should specify the gating strategies in the Materials and Methods or in the figure legend.
    • Authors are encouraged to include the Minimal Information About T cell Assays (MIATA) in the Materials and Methods, the figure legend or elsewhere as appropriate.
  4. Acknowledgments appear immediately after the Discussion and before References.
  5. Grant support must NOT be included in the Acknowledgments but should be cited as a footnote to the title. All funding sources must be disclosed and will be published as a footnote to the title; anonymous or pseudonymous funders are not permitted.
  6. References must be numbered as they appear in the text and should refer to primary literature rather than review articles wherever possible. All authors must be listed for each reference. If citations are included in tables or in figure legends, they must be numbered according to the position of citation of the table or figure in the text. Only published papers and papers in press may be included in the References. In press articles, i.e., papers not yet published, must be submitted as online attachments in PDF format at the time of article submission.
    NOTE: Do NOT submit as attachment papers that are already published, e.g., manuscripts published ahead of print. Such papers must be incorporated into the References and cited with their DOI numbers and year of publication. Citations of "manuscripts in preparation," "unpublished observations," "manuscripts posted on preprint servers," and "personal communications" must appear parenthetically in the text. Manuscripts "submitted for publication" (i.e., not yet accepted) also are mentioned parenthetically in the text. Written approval by the persons cited in personal communications must accompany the manuscript unless they are also authors of the manuscript submitted to ImmunoHorizons.

Format for references:

  • Periodicals: Wells, A. D., M. C. Walsh, D. Sankaran, and L. A. Turka. 2000. T cell effector function and anergy avoidance are quantitatively linked to cell division. J. Immunol. 165: 2432–2443.
  • Books: McIntyre, T. M., and W. Strober. 1999. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue: regulation of IgA B-cell development. In Mucosal Immunology, 2nd ed. P. L. Ogra, J. Mestecky, E. Lamm, W. Strober, J. Bienenstock, and J. R. McGhee, eds. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. p. 319–356.
  • Articles published ahead of print: Fraser, D.A., A. K. Laust, E. L. Nelson, and A. J. Tenner. 2009. C1q differentially modulates phagocytosis and cytokine responses during ingestion of apoptotic cells by human monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells . J. Immunol. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0902232.
  1. Footnotes should be used to designate the source of support, new or special abbreviations used, correspondence address, current address, etc. Footnotes should be numbered consecutively and will appear on the title page, but for submission are grouped together and placed on a separate page between the References and the Figure Legends.
  2. Tables must be numbered with Roman numerals in order of appearance in the text. All tables must have a title. Table legends are prepared as footnotes to the table and are included with the table. Tables must be in DOC file format. Each table should be submitted as a separate file.
  3. Figure legends must be numbered with Arabic numerals in order of appearance in the text and should include a short title after the figure number. Where possible, symbols and patterns used to distinguish data should be defined in a key placed within the graphic rather than in the figure legend. All figure legends must specify the number of times each experiment was independently performed, as well as the number of animals or replicates in each experimental group. For flow cytometry experiments, authors should specify the gating strategies in the Material and Methods or in the figure legend.
  4. Figures: At initial submission, a single PDF of text plus figures may be submitted.  Alternately, please submit low resolution figure files of the smallest possible file size that will convey the needed information. Smaller files can be downloaded more quickly by reviewers and will hasten the review process.
    • Color: Color figures must be in the RGB color space.
    • File Sizes: Figure files should not exceed 10 MB (average size is about 2 MB).
    • Image Sizes: Figures should be submitted in a size that is legible to reviewers, editors and readers.
    • Unless the file size is too large, multi-panel figures should be submitted as a single file.
    • Text and Lines: Text within figures must be 6-8 points in size, except for single letter markers, which may be 12 points. Helvetica or Arial should be used for all figure text (except for the use of symbols). Line widths must be greater than one point thick or they will not be visible on the PDF version of the article.
    • Numbering: Figures must be numbered to enable reviewers to know the figure number for each figure.
    • File Format:  Vector images are preferred because they are resolution-independent; they have the highest quality and produce the best results in publication. Text and line-work should always be submitted in vector format. EPS and PDF files support vector data.  Raster images (e.g., TIFF files) must meet the minimum resolution requirements described in the GUIDELINES.  PowerPoint files are not usually of suitable quality. Please click here for detailed instructions on converting PowerPoint files to TIFF.
  5. Digital Images: All images submitted to ImmunoHorizons must accurately represent the original data. Original data (digital files, autoradiographs, films, etc.) for all experiments should be fully annotated, secured, and retrievable. The original image file (raw data file) should be kept in an unprocessed and non-compressed file format. For figures that are compiled into multi-figure panels, the individual image files should be kept. For additional information, see:

Although manipulation of images should be kept to an absolute minimum, there may be circumstances when manipulations are necessary. If, however, the quality of an image is too poor to clearly convey the conclusion, the experiment should be repeated. Figures in manuscripts considered for acceptance will be screened for evidence of inappropriate manipulation. Manuscript acceptance is contingent upon a satisfactory outcome of the screening process. Please adhere to the following guidelines in preparing figures for manuscripts:

  • Collecting images: If multiple images are compared to one another, collect each image in the same manner. Any post-collection processing should be applied in a uniform manner to all images. If differences in collection/post-collection are necessary, these need to be described in the legend or in the Materials and Methods section.
  • Brightness and Contrast: Adjustments in brightness and contrast should be avoided if possible. If the brightness or contrast of an image needs minor adjustment, the adjustments must not obscure or eliminate any information and must be applied to the entire image. Significant adjustments should not be made. Do not use excessive contrast that removes background. Always note any adjustment in the legend or in the Materials and Methods section.
  • Cloning Tools: Images should not be “airbrushed” (with Clone Stamp Tool/Clone Brush) to remove “blemishes”. Do not use cloning tools to insert something into an image from elsewhere.
  • Gels/Blots: All gels should contain a positive and a negative control, and a set of molecular weight markers. For Western blots, control panels (actin, GAPDH, etc.) should come from a stripped and re-probed membrane of the experimental blot shown. If this is not possible, the control blots should be derived from the same samples and this should be indicated in the figure legend.
  • Cropping: Conservative cropping of gels and blots to improve clarity and conciseness may be permitted if the following points are observed:
    • Important bands must be retained.
    • At least several band widths should be retained above and below the cropped band.
    • Cropping must be noted in the legend.
    • Band(s) of interest must be clearly labeled.
    • Molecular weight marker positions should be shown in all gels/blots.
  • Splicing: Occasionally, images are spliced to rearrange the order of samples for the sake of presentation, such as those in a Western blot. If splicing of data from a single experiment is necessary, draw contrasting (black or white) vertical lines to indicate where the images were joined and state the manipulation in the legend. It would be preferable to re-run the gel so that the order is correct. Images from different experiments should not be spliced to form a new single image.
  1. Abbreviations that may be used without definition are shown in the list of standard abbreviations. Spell out nonstandard abbreviations used less than three times. Nonstandard abbreviations used three or more times must be defined in a footnote. Abbreviations and their definitions must be consistent throughout the text.



Cover art is selected from images in accepted articles and changes with each issue of ImmunoHorizons. Authors are encouraged to submit color figures with their manuscripts for possible use as cover illustrations. If an image is selected as cover art, the file must have a resolution of at least 96 dpi at a size of 864x1152 pixels.



High-resolution structural data: Any paper submitted to ImmunoHorizons that contains new high-resolution structural data requires an accession number from the Protein Data Bank and assurance that unrestricted release will occur at or before the time of publication. The accession number should be accompanied by the Website address of the databank.

For studies containing X-ray protein structures, authors must also submit the PDB Summary Validation Report (provided after annotation by the wwPDB) for review at the time of submission.

Nucleotide sequences: Sequences of nucleotides or amino acids longer than 50 bases/residues should not be presented in the text or in table form, but rather submitted as a publication-quality figure. Original nucleotide sequences, determined nucleotide sequences encoding reported amino acid sequences, and files of nucleotide sequences derived from high throughput/deep sequencing (RNA-seq, ChIP-seq, MeDIP-seq, etc.) described in the manuscript must be submitted to the appropriate public database (e.g., GenBank, or European Nucleotide Archive) at the time of manuscript submission. Trace and short read sequencing data should be deposited at the NCBI Trace ArchivesNCBI SRA or ENA's Sequence Read Archive. An accession number and sequence availability are required at the time of publication. The accession number should be accompanied by the Website address of the databank.

Microarray Data: As with other scientific approaches, current experimental, quantitation, verification, and statistical analyses are expected. Microarray experiments should be Minimum Information About a Microarray Experiment (MIAME) compliant. Whereas limited online space may be available for supplemental tables associated with the manuscript, complete microarray data must be deposited in the appropriate public database (e.g., GEOArrayExpress, or CIBEX), and must be accessible without restriction from the date of publication. An entry name or accession number must be included in the paper before publication. The accession number should be accompanied by the Website address of the databank.

Human and Animal Use

All studies involving human subjects must be conducted in accordance with the guidelines of the World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki (most recent revision). All animal studies must be performed in compliance with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (or otherwise equivalent guidelines). A statement that human and/or animal studies have been reviewed and approved by an appropriate institutional review committee must be included in the Materials and Methods section of the manuscript.

Immunology Education

For detailed information regarding content, please see our call for immunology education papers and the formal description of our Immunology Education manuscript category. In general, immunology education research papers should follow the same structure as full-length research manuscripts. The inclusion of supplemental materials such as a facilitator guide are encouraged.

Perspective essays will be considered and should follow the formatting requirements of On The Horizon manuscripts and may contain sections such as Curriculum Design. Authors are encouraged to contact the Editorial Office at with a proposal for a potential submission.


Authors will be offered the option to include their ORCID number.

  • Corresponding Authors may utilize this option during submission.
  • Contributing Authors should update their "Profile" (at bottom of the home screen, under "General Tasks") with their ORCID number. Then, during submission, the "Find Person" button should be used to enter the Contributing Author (enter "Last Name," then click "Find Person," and select the correct person from the drop down menu); this will pull in the ORCID for the Contributing Author.
  • If authors wish to include their ORCID numbers, these must be submitted via the submission system; they CANNOT be added at page proofs.

Style Guide

In general, ImmunoHorizons follows Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, seventh edition, published by the Council of Science Editors, Inc., in instances where style issues are not directly addressed.

Abbreviations for references: PubMed is the primary source for journal name abbreviations.


  1. Allergen nomenclature: Nomenclature for allergens should be assigned in cooperation with the IUIS Allergen Sub-Committee. Authors of accepted manuscripts that describe novel allergens will be requested to complete a brief standard form available at IUIS Allergen Nomenclature.
  2. CD nomenclature: For the purpose of consistency, The JI will follow CD nomenclature. For murine molecules, The JI will follow the nomenclature previously published (J. Immunol. 160: 3861-3868, 1998). For human molecules, standard CD nomenclature will be followed as updated (J. Immunol. 168: 2083-2086, 2002). See also HCDM
  3. Chemical names: Follow the IUPAC-IUB Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature-Chemical Abstracts or the Chemical Abstracts Guide to Naming and Indexing of Chemical Substances for proper spelling and style of chemical names.
  4. Chemokine/chemokine receptor nomenclature: The systematic name for chemokines and chemokine receptors should be used. The original name may be given in parenthesis if desired. See Cytokine 21:48-9, 2003.
  5. Enzyme Nomenclature is the source for style and spelling of enzyme names.
  6. Gene nomenclature for humans: The HUGO guidelines for gene symbols and nomenclature should be used for naming human genes; nomenclature of genome sequence variants should use the Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS) nomenclature, summarized at If commonly found in the literature, alternative nomenclature may be used in addition to HGVS nomenclature. Authors should submit all variants included in a manuscript to the relevant database (e.g. dbVar) for public release if the manuscript is published; the accession number and database URL should be included in the manuscript.
  7. Gene and strain nomenclature for mice: Mouse Genome Informatics is a reference source for naming mouse genes. A current listing of inbred strains of mice and rats is also available at Mouse Genome Informatics. Authors are also encouraged to deposit their mapping data with the Mouse Genome Database (MGD) before publication and to include the assigned MGD accession numbers in their manuscripts. Information about electronic submission of datasets can be obtained at the Data and Nomenclature Submissions page. Gene symbols should be reserved with MGD in advance of publication.
  8. HLA nomenclature: HLA nomenclature is updated periodically by the WHO Nomenclature Committee for Factors of the HLA System. Annual comprehensive revisions are published in Human Immunology. See also: EMBL-EBI

Supplemental Materials

  • Supporting data that are not essential to understanding the material presented in the manuscript may be submitted with the original paper for peer review.
  • Supplemental material is primarily intended for short videos, large tables, large sequence alignments, or large data sets. A maximum of four additional supplemental figures and/or tables that support the interpretation and conclusions drawn in the manuscript may, however, also be submitted for review with the manuscript.
  • Supplemental material must be submitted as separate files from the rest of the manuscript during the online submission; select "Supplemental Material" as the "File Type" when uploading the files.
  • Apart from videos, all files must be either PDF or Excel file format; multiple PDF files should be combined into a single PDF file.
    • NOTE: Excel files will be converted to PDFs for the review process only. At publication, the file(s) will be uploaded in the original Excel format.
  • Each supplemental figure should fit on a single 8.5”x11” PDF page when possible and be large enough to be legible when that page is opened.
  • Legends or short explanations must accompany all supplemental figures and videos; no other supplemental text is permitted in full-length manuscripts. Figure legends should be placed below the corresponding figure in the PDF. Legends for videos should be submitted in the single PDF for the supplemental material. Table legends must be prepared as footnotes to the table; all tables must have a title.
  • Videos must be 320 x 480 pixels or smaller for best viewing within a browser. Videos must be no longer than 30 seconds and under 10 MB, with no sound or voice-over. Submit videos in MPG or QuickTime format. Change QuickTime file extensions to ".mov" so that Web browsers will recognize the file type and play the movie. Compress videos as much as possible to help control file size. Name videos by order of citation appearance (e.g., Select "Video" as the "File Type" when uploading the files during online submission. Authors will be notified if problems exist with videos as submitted and will be asked to take responsibility for modifications. No editing will be done to videos at the Editorial Office.

Links to the Supplemental Material will appear in the text as well as under the “Figures & Data” tab at the top of an article.

Supplemental Materials are posted online as provided by the author. If revisions to supplemental figures or legends are needed at the proof stage, authors are responsible for revisions and should provide a complete, correct, and unannotated pdf file for the Supplemental figures and legends.

Web Links in Submitted Manuscripts

Links to Websites are permitted only if the information contained on the Website is not essential to the understanding and assessment of the manuscript or to the ability to repeat the experiments described in the paper. Web links will not be checked after submission for correctness or functionality; it is the responsibility of the authors to ensure that the web link is correct.

Who Can Be a Corresponding Author?

The Corresponding Author must be the person who has the authority to take responsibility for all obligations related to the manuscript and its submission. These responsibilities include but are not limited to:

  1. Ensuring the scientific integrity of the submission;
  2. Confirming that all authors have read and concur with the submission of the manuscript;
  3. Resolving any authorship disputes;
  4. Ensuring that all funding sources are listed in a footnote to the title;
  5. Making unique materials available to qualified investigators;
  6. Complying with requirements to deposit microarray and other similar datasets in public venues.
  7. Confirming that any human and/or animal studies have been approved by an appropriate institutional review committee;
  8. Ensuring that all conflicts of interest or financial interests are listed;
  9. Confirming that the manuscript is original;
  10. Confirming that no part of the manuscript has been previously published, submitted elsewhere, or posted on the Internet (other than a preprint, for example at bioRxiv; authors who post to a preprint site should identify the preprint server and include the accession number or DOI in their cover letter. If ImmunoHorizons publishes the manuscript, authors should request the preprint server to acknowledge publication and cite the journal reference, including the DOI to link to the published article.
  11. Ensuring that the manuscript contains no fabrications, fraud, or plagiarism;
  12. Maintaining/archiving all data related to the manuscript;
  13. Signing the Submission form and the Publication Charges form.
    • Someone other than the Corresponding Author may begin online submission of the manuscript (this person can upload the files and enter all required information). However, the Submission and Publication Charges forms MUST be completed by the Corresponding Author. If the Submitter is not the Corresponding Author, the submission will move from the Submitter's account to the Corresponding Author's account when the Submitter has completed all parts of the submission except the forms, to enable the Corresponding Author to complete the forms.
    • Please note that the Corresponding Author is the person who receives and responds to communication from the Editor-in-Chief and Editorial Office during the peer-review process. The designation of Corresponding Author does not refer to the person with whom readers may correspond after an article is published. After the manuscript has been checked by journal staff, the Corresponding Author will receive an email acknowledging receipt of the manuscript. Please contact if you do not receive the acknowledgment e-mail.

Editorial Board

The AAI Council, upon recommendation of the Publications Committee, appoints the Editor-in-Chief for a term of three years.  Senior Editors are nominated by the Editor-in-Chief and appointed by the Publications Committee; Associate Editors are nominated by the Editor-in-Chief. The Editor-in-Chief and the Senior Editors constitute the Editorial Board. Senior Editors and Associate Editors are appointed for one renewable term of two years in most circumstances. Senior Editors and Associate Editors are required to be members of AAI. The Editor-in-Chief is responsible for the specific editorial conduct of ImmunoHorizons. The AAI Publications Committee is responsible for the management and evaluation of ImmunoHorizons and any other official publication of AAI, subject to the general supervision of the AAI Council.


During submission, the corresponding author will, on behalf of all authors, select a license type under which the article will be published. AAI offers a choice of the following licenses:

  1. CC BY 4.0 (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)
  2. CC BY-NC 4.0 (Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License)
  3. CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 (Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License)

The author(s) retain copyright of all material published in ImmunoHorizons, unless all authors are employees of the US Government, in which case the article is in the public domain in the United States. If all authors are employees of the US Government, the article will be published under a CC BY 4.0 license.


Authors may submit the author version (the version of the paper that has been peer reviewed and accepted for publication) of an ImmunoHorizons article to PubMed Central (PMC) themselves.

Publication Fees

For manuscripts accepted for publication January 1, 2019 and thereafter, the publication charge is $1,595.00 for each published article. There are no manuscript submission fees.

All publication fees are payable in U.S. dollars. Accepted manuscripts are published only upon commitment by the author(s) or institutional financial officer to pay this charge.


Reprints must be ordered in advance of publication. Within 24 hours of receiving page proofs, authors will receive an email directing them to the author billing system. From this site you will be able to order reprints, view the charge for your upcoming article, and make payments electronically. Reprint orders from noncontributors must be directed to the Editorial Office.


The Process: By submitting a manuscript to ImmunoHorizons, the authors agree to subject it to the confidential peer-review process. Editors and reviewers are informed that the manuscript must be considered confidential.

Manuscripts may be submitted to ImmunoHorizons by one of two routes:

  1. As a new submission: After a manuscript is received, it is assigned by PhD scientists on staff to one of the two Editor-in-Chief and to a specific Senior Editor. The Senior Editor prepares a list of expert reviewers, which may include some suggested by the PhD scientists. Authors can indicate specific individuals whom they would like to have excluded as reviewers. Generally, requests to exclude certain potential reviewers will be honored except in fields with a limited number of experts.
    All potential reviewers are contacted individually to determine availability. Manuscript files are sent to at least two expert reviewers. Reviewers are asked to complete the review of the manuscript within two weeks and to return a short review form. Based on the reviewers' comments, the Senior Editor recommends a course of action and communicates the reviews and recommendations to the Editor-in-Chief for a final decision.
    The Editor-in-Chief considers the comments made by the reviewers and the recommendation of the Senior Editor, selects those comments to be shared with the authors, makes a final decision concerning the manuscript, and prepares the decision letter. If revisions of the manuscript are suggested, the Editor-in-Chief also decides who should review the revised paper when resubmitted. Authors are informed of the decision by e-mail; appropriate comments from reviewers and editors are appended.
  2. Transfer from The Journal of Immunology: If a manuscript is not accepted for publication in The JI, the authors may be offered the opportunity to transfer the manuscript to ImmunoHorizons via a link provided in the decision letter. If the author chooses this option, the transfer includes the latest version of the manuscript, all reviewer comments on all versions, the reviewers’ identity, all letters from author to journal and from journal to author, and all letters from journal to reviewer and reviewer to journal. Transferred manuscripts will be sent to one of the Editor-in-Chief who will make a decision whether the manuscript can be accepted “as-is”, or needs (usually minor) edits. If edits are needed, the submission will be returned to the author’s account for resubmission of the revised version.

Decisions: There are four categories for initial decisions: accept, accept with minor revision, return for revision, and reject. For many manuscripts, authors are invited to resubmit if revision or additional experimentation can address major criticisms. All revised manuscripts are carefully reexamined, and ultimate acceptability is not guaranteed. ImmunoHorizons does not provide for an advance determination of the acceptability of a particular manuscript for publication, nor does it promise expedited review of selected manuscripts.

Communication With Authors: To minimize the possibility of misinterpretation or errors in verbal communication, the Editorial Office will provide information, in writing, only to the corresponding author and will not provide extensive details (e.g., exact status of a review or a predicted time to final decision). Editors do not take calls from authors concerning decisions or other related matters. All such inquiries should be addressed in writing to the Editor-in-Chief ( This policy has been established to provide for uniformity and fairness in addressing concerns about the review process.

Manuscripts Submitted From The Institution Of An Editor: Manuscripts submitted from the institution of any Associate or Senior Editor, or an Editor-in-Chief, are reviewed by other editors from outside that institution. The Editorial Office ensures confidentiality and equity in reviewing all manuscripts.

Rebuttals: If the authors believe that a serious scientific error occurred during the review, a letter of rebuttal may be sent to the Editor-in-Chief, explaining the reasons why the decision should be reconsidered. Letters of rebuttal must be received by the Editor-in-Chief within six weeks of the date the decision letter was sent. When appropriate, the matter will be taken up with the Senior Editor, or additional reviewers. If the authors of a rejected manuscript are able to make new advances that go far beyond the original submission, they will often expedite consideration of their paper through the submission of a completely new manuscript.


Selection: Selection of reviewers is the responsibility of the Senior Editor, although the PhD scientists on staff make recommendations from a database of individuals who have reviewed manuscripts previously. This database includes self-identified areas of expertise as well as information about the perceived usefulness and timeliness of past reviews. Individuals who consistently have provided tardy or unhelpful reviews are removed from the database. Every effort is made to avoid both real and apparent conflicts of interest with respect to research activities or collaborative or personal interactions. Reviewers are asked to withdraw from considering any manuscript in which they identify a conflict that has escaped the attention of the Senior Editor.

Scientific Integrity: Information contained in manuscripts is considered confidential and should not be shared or distributed. If necessary, a reviewer can consult with others for an adequate evaluation of the research findings if all individuals involved maintain confidentiality, objectivity, and avoid conflict of interest. AAI is not responsible for acts and conduct by reviewers that are not in accordance with accepted professional standards. Reviewers are asked to be objective in their evaluations and to judge primarily the soundness of the information presented.

Anonymity: Although reviews are anonymous, all comments should be capable of withstanding public scrutiny. Except in very unusual circumstances, the identity of the reviewers, Senior Editor and Editor-in-Chief involved in the review of any given manuscript is kept confidential.


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