The success attained by the use of antityphoid vaccine in military circles both in this country and abroad, naturally attracted the attention of public health officers to the use of this agent as a preventive against typhoid fever in civil life. While a very good beginning has been made, there are problems not encountered in the army that must be overcome before equally brilliant results can be hoped for in this field.

The health departments of Maryland and of Baltimore City were among the first to prepare and distribute antityphoid vaccine to the citizens of the state and city without cost. This work was begun early in 1910, and up to January 1, 1916, 22,681 complete doses of vaccine had been prepared and distributed to inhabitants of the state and city.

The greater part of this vaccine was prepared by washing off twenty-four hour old agar cultures with sterile salt solution and killing the organisms by heating at a temperature of 58°C.

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