Various authors have demonstrated an antigenic identity between nervous tissue and treponema. This report shows that this antigenic identity is due to the presence in the treponema extracts of a galactodiglyceride hapten: i.e, 2,3-di-O-acyl-1-O-(β-D-galactopyranosyl)-D-glycerol. This hapten shows a cross-reaction with the cerebrosides; moreover, the nervous tissue contains a lipid which, on deacylation, liberates a O-(β-D-galactosyl)-1-1′-glycerol (11). The part played by each of the constituents as well as the possible consequences of this antigenic community are discussed.

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