A thymus-independent antigen (levan) can function as a carrier and induce the synthesis of antibodies to DNP. The DNP-levan conjugate is able to elicit only 19S antibody against the hapten. This immune response is not affected in thymectomized mice, but is abolished in mice tolerant to levan. A mechanism involving cooperation between hapten-specific B lymphocytes and carrier-specific B lymphocytes is suggested to account for these findings.

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