Nonimmunospecific interactions of IgG and IgG-agarose columns were systematically studied under varying conditions. Nonimmunospecific binding to the columns was primarily due to protein-protein interactions. These nonimmunospecific protein-protein interactions of IgG were enhanced with heat-induced or chemical aggregation of IgG, low pH, low ionic strength (at pH above 4), or low temperature. Conversely, this binding was decreased with proteolytic fragmentation of IgG, high ionic strength (at pH above 4), or temperatures above 4°C. Chemical modification of IgG by acetylation, formalinization, carbamylation, or reaction with 1,2-cyclohexanedione significantly decreased these interactions. These observations suggest that above pH 4, ionic interactions caused the protein-protein binding. Below pH 4, hydrophobic interactions presumably play a major role.
These results permit the development of a rational methodology for avoiding nonimmunospecific protein-protein interactions in immunologic procedures for detection, isolation, or quantification of rheumatoid factors and other antibodies to IgG.