Antibody-sensitized line-1 or line-10 tumor cells treated with GPC (TAC) incorporated fatty acids into complex cellular lipids and released increased amounts of fatty acids within 5 to 10 min after the addition of GPC as compared to control cells. This effect was dependent on the concentration of GPC used; however, under conditions where the cells were not killed, the enhanced synthesis and release of lipids were not dependent on the antibody concentration used to sensitize the cells. Treatment of the cells with antibody alone, GPC alone, or antibody plus heat-inactivated GPC did not result in enhanced synthesis or release of lipids. No enhancement in DNA, RNA, or protein synthesis in TAC was noted. Line-1 cells, which can be killed by GPC when sensitized with excess anti-Forssman IgM antibody, demonstrated enhanced lipid synthesis within 1 to 3 min after the addition of GPC to the antibody-sensitized cells, before measurable killing of the cells had occurred. This effect persisted in the surviving cells when tested 5 and 10 min after the formation of TAC. Addition of GPC deficient in C4 to antibody-sensitized cells did not result in enhanced lipid synthesis or release. These data suggest that the synthesis of macromolecules of which lipids are a major component is of central importance for the ability of the cells to resist antibody-GPC mediated attack.