Human T and B lymphocytes were found to be distinguishable on the basis of electrophoretic mobility, with the T cells having the higher mobility, in agreement with previous reports. The effects of the enzyme neuraminidase on the electrophoretic mobilities of T and B lymphocytes were determined. T lymphocytes showed a greater decrease in electrophoretic mobility after neuraminidase treatment; the relative mobilities of T and B cells were reversed by neuraminidase treatment, and the electrophoretic distinguishability was enhanced. The electrophoretic mobility distributions of lymphoblasts from patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia were found to differ from those of normal cells in their response to neuraminidase treatment and to changes in solution ionic strength. These results imply that the surface structure of the leukemic cells differs from that of either T or B lymphocytes from normal donors.