A surface antigen (SA) was detected on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-carrying lymphoid cell lines by indirect membrane immunofluorescence with an antiserum from a rabbit immunized with Raji cells; the antiserum had been extensively absorbed with normal human blood and tonsil cells. The SA was not detected on normal human umbilical cord and adult peripheral blood lymphocytes or EBV-negative cell lines. Incidences of the SA and EBV-determined membrane antigen (MA) on certain EBV-carrying cell lines were not compatible. Antibody against SA was differentially absorbed by the SA-positive MA-negative cell lines whereas MA antibody was absorbed by MA-positive SA-negative cell lines. The results of cross-absorption tests of antiserum against Raji cells or P3HR-1 cells suggested that SA may contain more than one antigenic determinant.