Spleen cells taken from mice soon after infection with Trypanosoma brucei S 42 enhance the primary in vitro antibody response of normal spleen cells to sheep red blood cells (SRBC), but do not affect their response to DNP-Ficoll. Spleen cells harvested later in the infection (day 6 onwards) suppress the antibody response of normal spleen cells to both SRBC and DNP-Ficoll. The enhancing and suppressive effects of “infected” spleen cells are sensitive to treatment with anti-Thy 1.2 antiserum and complement, and can be mediated by nylon wool-purified populations of T cells. The enhancing T cell is sensitive to ALS, not lost within 4 weeks of adult thymectomy, and bears the Ly-1+, 23- phenotype. The suppressor T cell is insensitive to ALS, lost within 20 weeks of adult thymectomy, and bears the Ly-1+, 23+ phenotype. The significance of the activation of distinct helper and suppressor T cells is discussed in relation to the pathogenesis of trypanosomiasis.