Studies on the genetic control of immune response to sperm whale myoglobin were initiated. As demonstrated in this paper, the T lymphocyte proliferative response to whale myoglobin is under H-2-linked Ir gene control. Mice of H-2d, H-2f, and H-2s haplotypes were high responders to the myoglobin, whereas haplotypes H-2b, H-2k, H-2p, H-2q, and H-2r were low responders. The Ir gene(s) was localized between H-2K and H2D regions, since the recombinant strain A.TL (KsIkSkDd) was a low responder and A.TH (KsIsSsDd) was a high responder. Further studies with recombinant strains revealed that the expression of the high-responder I-Ad or I-As alleles was sufficient to give a good response, since strains D2.GD (d d b b b b b b) and B10.HTT (s s s s k k k d) were high responders. The expression of the I-Cd allele in strains B10.A (k k k k k d d d) and B10.A(5R) (b b b k k d d d) also gave high response, and thus suggested a second Ir gene, derived from the H-2d haplotype. The finding that expression of the I-Cs allele in B10.S(8R) (k k ? ? s s s s) did not result in high response suggests the lack of the second Ir gene in the high-responder H-2s haplotype.