The role of the recently defined L antigen (a second D region product) in allogeneic and TNP-specific syngeneic primary CML responses has been investigated. The lysis by anti-L specific cytotoxic effector cells was not inhibited when the target cells were pretreated with an antiserum directed against K and D, whereas an antiserum against L completely abrogated this response. Therefore, H-2L products are recognized on the target cells independently of H-2K and H-2D locus products. Both A.SW cells as well as B10 cells were found to respond to Ld alloantigens, in addition to Dd alloantigens when stimulated by cells differing only in the D region. The results of cold target blocking and antiserum inhibition experiments failed to detect cytotoxic cells with specificity for L antigens in association with TNP, under conditions in which TNP-specific effectors to K and D antigens were demonstrable. These findings suggest that there is a more limited involvement of H-2L locus products than the H-2K or H-2D locus products in the induction and specificity of these responses.