In the accompanying report, we have described the characterization of two unusual murine B cell lymphomas, CH1 and CH2. A heterologous antiserum, which we refer to as “anti-idiotype” serum, has been raised to the detergent-solubilized surface immunoglobulin of CH1. The following criteria have established that this antiserum is specific for the CH1 tumor and that it reacts with V region determinants of the tumor surface IgM: 1) the antiserum reacts with CH1 tumor cells, but not normal mouse lymphoid cells or CH2 tumor cells, in indirect immunofluorescence and C-dependent cytotoxicity testing, 2) capping with the anti-idiotype serum removes all or most of the tumor surface Ig, 3) the antiserum forms a single band of precipitation against serum from CH1 tumor-bearing mice, when tested by double diffusion precipitin analysis, and 4) a single band of precipitation is formed in the electrophoretic migration position of IgM when the anti-idiotype antiserum is tested against serum from CH1 tumor-bearing mice in immunoelectrophoresis. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that this antiserum is useful in monitoring tumor growth and is a potent immunotherapeutic agent. Specifically, 50% of mice injected with a lethal tumor inoculum and given a small dose of anti-idiotype serum 2 days later remain tumor free, whereas all tumor-challenged control mice died within 30 days.