Cell-mediated cytolytic (CMC) responses resulted from immunizations between rat strains purported to be identical at Ag-B, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), but differing at other loci not linked to Ag-B. In vivo-priming followed by secondary in vitro stimulation was required to generate a measurable CMC response as determined by a 51Cr-release assay. Neither in vivo nor in vitro stimulation alone was adequate. The CMC responses generated in a strain combination considered Ag-B identical (LEW·B3:BN) were specific for a determinant controlled by a gene linked to Ag-B, which has been designated Ag-L. The CMC response appears not to be restricted to syngeneity at Ag-B. In addition, the data presented demonstrate a recombinant between Ag-B and Ag-L, and suggest that the gene has failed to transfer with the MHC during the isolation of the LEW·B3 and F-344·B3 congenic strains.