B10.AKM mice (H-2m) when immunized with H-2k cells showed very low cytotoxic antibody responses to the H-2Dk private specificity H-2.32, whereas AKR.M and (AKR.M × B10.AKM)F1 mice that possess the same H-2m haplotype mounted reasonable anti-H-2.32 antibody responses. The genetic nature of the non-H-2 linked gene(s) controlling the anti-H-2.32 response was analyzed on the backcross progeny raised between (AKR.M × B10.AKM)F1 and B10.AKM mice. The anti-H-2.32 antibody response was found to be predominantly controlled by a single locus. This locus segregated independently of the Ig heavy chain locus, the Ly2 locus, and the Mls locus. Despite the observed difference in antibody production, no significant differences between AKR.M and B10.AKM mice were detected in induction of H-2Dk-specific killer T cells. Thus, the defect in the response of B10.AKM mice to H-2.32 can be detected at the level of B cell function and is controlled by a single non-H-2-linked genetic locus, but is not attributable to genes linked to the major immunoglobulin structural genes nor to the Mls locus.