In this study we report the identification of an antibody in the sera of some patients with autoimmune disease that reacted with a cytoplasmic antigen localized within the Golgi apparatus. The antibody reacted with all tissues investigated, which included pancreas, kidney, testis, liver, thymus, and spleen. In addition, it reacted with some human peripheral circulating lymphocytes, murine peritoneal macrophages, and a variety of tissue culture cell lines, which included HEp-2 cells (human epithelial carcinoma), baby hamster kidney cells, a canine thymus cell line, a primary kidney cell line, Ehrlich ascites cells, Wil-2 cells, and Raji cells. The antigen is located in the same region stained by the histochemical reaction for thiamine pyrophosphatase, thus indicating that the antigen is located within the Golgi apparatus. The antigen was not demonstrated by immunodiffusion of saline extracts of rabbit thymus, pancreas, or liver. The antigen in HEp-2 cells was resistant to RNase A, DNase I, micrococcal nuclease, and to extraction with 0.1 N HC1, but was sensitive to trypsin and Proteinase K. Eight patients with anti-Golgi antibodies have been identified. Six of the eight had systemic lupus erythematosus. Autoantibodies to a Golgi apparatus antigen might serve as a useful biologic marker to study the functional relationship of the Golgi apparatus to lymphocytes and macrophages.