We have isolated a BALB/c (H-2d, Mlsb) T cell clone (JTL-G12) specific for the synthetic polypeptide antigen poly(Glu60Ala30Tyr10) (GAT) in the context of self I-A determinants and for Mlsa,d antigens in the absence of GAT. JTL-G12 proliferation in response to GAT was mapped to the Kd, I-Ad subregions by using inbred H-2 congenic and recombinant strains. In addition, monoclonal antibody directed against I-Ad but not Kd or I-As determinants blocked JTL-G12 proliferation in response to GAT presented by syngeneic splenocytes, indicating I-A restriction. The Mls cross-reactivity of this clone was verified by using a panel of inbred strains bearing the Mlsa,b,c,d alleles and by using BXD recombinant inbred strains bearing the Mlsa allele or the Mlsb allele. All of the Mlsa BXD strains of the H-2d or H-2b haplotypes stimulated JTL-G12 in the absence of GAT, whereas all of the Mlsb BXD strains were nonstimulatory. This response pattern is in complete accordance with recognition of the Mlsa determinant encoded by Mls or closely linked loci on chromosome 1. JTL-G12 proliferation in response to GAT/I-Ad and Mlsa,d determinants could be blocked with a monoclonal antibody (GK1.5) directed against L3T4, a structure involved in class II major histocompatibility complex antigen recognition. These results suggest that antigen/class II responsiveness, Mls reactivity, and expression of L3T4 can be properties of a single T cell population.