The release of intracellular peroxidase (EPO) was investigated in order to evaluate rat eosinophil activation by various immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes. After successive incubations with purified rat IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, IgG2c, IgE, or IgM and their respective anti-Ig antisera, eosinophils released significant amounts of EPO (up to 26% of the intracellular content) only in the case of Ig with anaphylactic activities (IgG2a and IgE). Other classes and subclasses were unable to induce EPO exocytosis. Selective depletion and reconstitution experiments suggested that mast cells were not required in this process. Similar levels of EPO could be released after interaction of eosinophils with antigen-antibody complexes (IgG2a monoclonal antibody and Schistosoma mansoni antigen) immobilized on nonphagocytosable surfaces. These results indicate that EPO exocytosis can be obtained after cell activation with specific antibodies, and that this mechanism is independent of phagocytosis. A kinetic study of eosinophils from S. mansoni-infected rats revealed that IgG2a and IgE cytophilic antibodies induced EPO release after incubation with either specific antisera or specific antigen, which suggests the in vivo relevance of such findings. The present work underlines the parallelism of interaction of anaphylactic-type Ig with eosinophils and with mast cells. Moreover, EPO release seems to represent an interesting marker of eosinophil activation, because close relationships were established between the present findings and previous work on the effector function of rat eosinophils.