CBA females (H-2k) mated with DBA2 males (H-2d) exhibit a high rate of fetal resorption (30%) when compared with the CBA female BALB/c male, CBA female/CBA male, DBA2 female/CBA male, DBA2 female/DBA2 male combinations (6 to 8%). Preimmunization of CBA females with spleen cells from DBA2, BALB/c, or CBA males were performed in order to test their effects on CBA maternal tolerance of (CBA X DBA2)F1 fetuses. Only preimmunization with BALB/c male cells was effective in decreasing resorption; cells from BALB/c females had no effect. In order to further test 1) the role of non-MHC-encoded antigens present in the BALB/c male background, 2) the necessity of an additional H-2 difference, and 3) whether or not the phenomenon is H-2d restricted, preimmunizations were performed by using cells from congenic BALB/k (H-2k), BALB/b (H-2b), or BALB/c (H-2d). Only the latter treatment was efficient, which suggests that the paternal H-2d haplotype must be presented in synergy with some non-MHC-encoded antigens in the BALB/c male background. Immunogenetic studies with cells from nine recombinant inbred strains that reassorted DBA2 and BALB/c genomes showed that three of them behave like BALB/c and six like DBA2. This would suggest that the genetic determinism of this phenomenon is simple.