Previous studies have demonstrated that the Y chromosome of the BXSB mouse can lead to accelerated autoimmunity in inbred BXSB mice and in F1 hybrids. To additionally study the effects of the BXSB-Y, we have studied three sets of Y-consomic mice, NZB.BXSB-Y, NZW.BXSB-Y, and CBA/J.BXSB-Y, each consisting of background genes from the non-BXSB parent and the Y chromosome from the BXSB mouse. The effect of the BXSB-Y on autoantibody production, immunopathology, and survival was assessed. We found that the CBA/J.BXSB-Y mice showed few differences from control CBA/J males. In contrast, NZW.BXSB-Y males had accelerated renal and cardiac disease and early death, resembling that previously reported for (NZW X BXSB)F1 mice. NZB.BXSB-Y males had accelerated anti-erythrocyte autoantibodies but not accelerated anti-DNA. They lived almost as long as NZB mice. The presence of the BXSB-Y in all of the consomic mice was confirmed by crossing the consomic mice with BXSB females and demonstrating accelerated disease in the male offspring. This study demonstrates that the BXSB-Y chromosome autoimmune accelerating factor does not act alone but operates through other genes, and that the effects on different genetic backgrounds are different. The studies have implications for human lupus; they also provide a basis for future molecular biology studies of the BXSB-Y and the genes upon which it acts.