A single injection of young murine immune interferon (IFN-gamma) in young (3 mo) or old (14 to 24 mo) mice 3 days before carrier-priming significantly enhances helper T cell activity of their spleen cells. Maximal enhancement is attained when IFN-gamma is injected once immediately before priming or for 4 consecutive days from the time of priming. Helper activity for anti-TNP antibody response was titrated in vitro by adding graded numbers of spleen cells from HRBC-primed mice of a given age to cultures containing a constant number of spleen cells from 3-mo-old normal mice and TNP-HRBC. When T cell-enriched spleen cells from HRBC-primed young or old mice, uninjected or injected with IFN-gamma, were separated by nylon wool filtration into passed (Thi) and adherent (Th2) cells, the helper activity of both T cell subpopulations was found to be enhanced by IFN-gamma injection. Helper activity of purified Th1 and Th2 cells was also increased by their in vitro preincubation with IFN-gamma. Furthermore, interleukin 2 (IL 2) production by mitogen-activated spleen cells from young and old mice is enhanced by addition of IFN-gamma to cultures. These data altogether indicate that IFN-gamma plays an important role in immunoregulation of helper T cell activity.