A new class of immunoglobulin (IgX) has been found in the South African frog, Xenopus laevis, and other related species. IgX can be immunoprecipitated by monoclonal antibodies directed against determinants found on Xenopus light chain, or on variable regions of heavy chains. Reagents specific for the heavy chain of IgM or the amphibian IgG equivalent, IgY, failed to react with IgX. IgX, which exists in serum as a polymer, is composed of subunits of disulfide-bonded heavy chains of 80,000 daltons and light chains of 25,000 to 29,000 daltons. Like mu, the heavy chain of IgX carries a large amount of asparagine-linked carbohydrate, but the partial peptide maps of the two are different. Although the concentration of IgX varies greatly in the serum of individual frogs, it is always secreted in cultures of cells from the spleen and intestinal mucosae.