The most challenging aspect of cancer treatment remains the management of invasive and metastatic tumor growth. Recent progress in the development and use of biologic response modifiers for immunomodulation has raised the possibility that the immune system can be used as an additional antitumor treatment modality in conjunction with surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy for the treatment of established tumors and their metastases. As a model for adoptive chemoimmunotherapy (ACIT) of renal cancer we have used a murine renal cancer (Renca) of spontaneous origin that mimics the tumor progression characteristically observed for human renal cell carcinoma. In the present study, we demonstrate that broadly cytotoxic lymphocytes, generated by in vitro culture with human recombinant interleukin 2, and used in conjunction with the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin hydrochloride, are effective in treating invasive and metastatic renal cell cancer. Administration of ACIT i.v. or i.p., alone, or after nephrectomy of the tumor-bearing kidney, did not cure mice with stage II (locoregional invasive tumor) or stage III (lymph node metastases) disease. In contrast, nephrectomy followed by simultaneous bicompartmental i.v. and i.p. ACIT administration cured 80% of mice with either stage II or stage III Renca. These data demonstrate that simultaneous bicompartmental ACIT affords dramatically improved cure rates for advanced and metastatic Renca. This effect most likely results from efficient control of both locoregional and metastatic tumor growth.

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