The cytotoxic host immune response toward autologous human cancer may be regulated by the immunoregulatory network. Here we show that helper T cells, cloned from peripheral blood lymphocytes that were sensitized in vitro against an autologous human malignant paraganglioma, proliferated against and made interleukin 2 when cocultured with the tumor-associated antigen in the presence of autologous accessory cells. Furthermore, the helper cell clones amplified cytotoxic immune response by peripheral blood lymphocytes against the paraganglioma cells in coculture with the blood lymphocytes and the paraganglioma cells. An autologous T cell line bearing suppressor phenotype, established from a lymph node that had been infiltrated with the paraganglioma tumor cells, in contrast to the helper cells, selectively suppressed the cytotoxic immune response by the blood lymphocytes against the paraganglioma cells in identical coculture. These results, therefore, demonstrate the existence of cell-mediated immunologic regulations of the cytotoxic immune response (concurrent amplification and suppression in the same host) against an autologous human tumor.

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