Pancreatic islet and fetal pancreas allotransplantation has been used to examine the role of the L3T4+ T cell in allograft rejection. Tissues were grafted into recipient animals depleted of peripheral L3T4+ T cells by in vivo administration of GK1.5 (anti-L3T4) monoclonal antibody to ask the question: is there a requirement for the L3T4+ T cell in graft rejection? Data show that the requirement for the L3T4+ T cell depends on either the type of tissue transplanted or type of the antigenic disparity between donor and recipient. Data also indicate that islet allograft acceptance achieved after GK1.5 treatment of the recipient is not due to tolerance induction. We therefore conclude that the cellular requirements for allograft rejection are determined by the type of tissue transplanted and the genetic disparity between donor and recipient.