OKT3 monoclonal antibody (MoAb), a mouse MoAb against cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) molecule, induced a large amount of procoagulant activity (PCA) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM). The PCA-inducing capability in OKT3 MoAb was abolished by absorption with T lymphocytes or Sepharose-conjugated antibody to mouse IgG. Most of the PCA in PBM was associated with monocytes. There was a dose-dependent increase in PCA when increasing numbers of T cells were added to the monocytes in the presence of OKT3 MoAb. OKT3 MoAb did not induce PCA in either T cells or monocytes alone. T cells pulsed with OKT3 MoAb only in the presence of monocytes could induce PCA in monocytes. Culture supernatants (CS) from PBM stimulated with OKT3 MoAb did not enhance PCA in monocytes; however, it did induce PCA in the human monocyte-like cell line (U937) which differs in some properties from monocytes; this activity could be abolished by the MoAb against human interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Nevertheless, neither human IFN-gamma nor interleukin 1 or 2 had significant direct effect in inducing PCA in U937 cells; CS from either monocytes or T cells alone stimulated with OKT3 MoAb did not induce PCA in U937 cells. This apparent discrepancy suggests that there may be factors in CS that induce PCA in U937 cells only in the presence of IFN-gamma. The PCA induced in monocytes or U937 cells was tissue factor-like because of the dependence on coagulation factors V, VII, and X. These observations suggest that OKT3 MoAb is a potent T cell-dependent monocyte PCA inducer and stimulates T cells only in the presence of monocytes. The direct cellular interaction between monocytes and stimulated T cells appears to be necessary to elicit monocyte PCA with OKT3 MoAb stimulation. Thus, monocytes may play a dual role, not only as effector cells, but also as cells that collaborate with T cells after OKT3 MoAb stimulation so as to produce PCA.