IFN-gamma is a secreted polypeptide product of stimulated T lymphocytes with immunomodulatory properties as well as antiviral activity. We have investigated the effects of IFN-gamma treatment on a neutralizing antibody response to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) when administered in conjunction with immunization using purified envelope glycoprotein "G" of VSV. Administration of rIFN-gamma to mice or cattle at the time of primary immunization with VSV G glycoprotein enhanced the magnitude of a secondary virus-neutralizing antibody response after a booster administration of the same Ag without IFN-gamma treatment. Enhancement was statistically significant and occurred at relatively low doses of IFN-gamma in the absence of any additional adjuvants. Furthermore, cattle treated with IFN-gamma at the time of a single primary immunization were more resistant to VSV challenge than those immunized without IFN-gamma treatment. IFN-gamma treatment in conjunction with a single primary immunization may therefore provide a practical means of enhancing protection from a viral challenge without the use of inflammatory adjuvants or booster immunizations.

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