A soluble form of homologous restriction factor (HRF-U) was isolated from normal human urine. With respect to m.w. (65,000) and immunoblotting characteristics, it resembled membrane HRF (HRF-M) that had been isolated from human E membranes. The protein exhibited limited cross-reactivity with the channel-forming proteins of C and cytotoxic lymphocytes. It inhibited reactive lysis of E by human C5b-9. Inhibition occurred at the attachment stage of C5b-7 to target cells, rather than at the C8 or C9 stage of membrane attack complex assembly which is inhibited by HRF-M. In this respect, HRF-U acts analogously to S protein of serum, but no immunochemical relationship between these two proteins was detected. HRF-U might be derived from the soluble HRF detected in cytoplasmic granules of killer lymphocytes.