Host genetic determinants of resistance or susceptibility to a retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome, termed MAIDS, were evaluated in Fv-1b mice infected with the mixture of ecotropic, MCF, and defective murine leukemia viruses designated LP-BM5 murine leukemia viruses. Genes of the MHC were shown to exert a major influence on the development of disease and the extent of virus spread in mice infected as adults. Strains bearing the b, f, k, q, r, and s haplotypes were moderately to highly susceptible to MAIDS whereas mice of the d haplotype were the most resistant. Resistance to disease was strongly associated with inhibition of mink cell focus-inducing virus spread and, to a lesser extent, with inhibition of ecotropic virus expression. Mapping studies localizing resistance associated with the d haplotype to H-2Dd were confirmed by the demonstration that B6 mice carrying this gene as a transgene or by recombination were resistant to disease. Penetrance of resistance to disease associated with expression of H-2Dd was markedly influenced by MHC genes mapping to the left of H-2D and by non-MHC loci such that some strains bearing this gene were highly susceptible to MAIDS. The combined effects of MHC and background genes among 40 strains examined yielded a remarkably wide spectrum of disease phenotypes with the onset of advanced disease ranging from 10 wk to 72 wk postinfection. Resistance to disease in moderately to highly resistant strains was shown to develop with age. Unexpectedly, the disease resistant phenotype was found to be a recessive trait.

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