The effect of an IFN-gamma mAb on the protective activity of immune T cells against Toxoplasma infection was examined in a murine model of toxoplasmosis. Mice that received anti-IFN-gamma antibody and immune spleen cells all died of toxoplasmosis after challenge with Toxoplasma tachyzoites. In contrast, mice that received normal IgG and immune spleen cells all survived the infection. The protective activity of Lyt-2+ immune T cells, previously shown to be the principal mediators of resistance against Toxoplasma in mice was completely ablated by the anti-IFN-gamma mAb. These results suggest that IFN-gamma is the major mediator of the resistance against Toxoplasma infection in mice which is conferred by immune T cells.