CSF have a broad range of effects on differentiated cells outside the bone marrow. Site-specific elaboration of these factors may influence local immune reactions. Keratinocytes have been demonstrated to produce a number of immunoactive cytokines, including factors capable of modifying macrophage function. We have previously identified at least two products of keratinocytes that induce DNA synthesis by elicited peritoneal macrophages; one factor has been identified as granulocyte-macrophage CSF. In the present study, the second keratinocyte product has been characterized and identified as macrophage-CSF (M-CSF). Conditioned media from cultures of normal human keratinocytes and the transformed murine keratinocyte cell line PAM 212 induce formation of macrophage colonies in soft agar as well as dose-dependent proliferation of the M-CSF-dependent cell line BAC1.2F5. The bioactivity in both assays is blocked by neutralizing anti-M-CSF antibody. Western blot analysis of cell lysates from both PAM 212 and normal human keratinocytes demonstrates multiple molecular mass forms of M-CSF (45 to 98 kDa). Northern blot analysis (PAM 212 cells) and in situ hybridization (normal keratinocytes) demonstrate expression of M-CSF mRNA. Stimulation of keratinocytes with LPS increases M-CSF synthesis as measured both by bioactivity and level of mRNA expression. Thus, both murine and human keratinocytes produce M-CSF in vitro. Furthermore, production of keratinocyte-derived M-CSF is increased by bacterial LPS. CSF production by keratinocytes may play an important role in regulating the cutaneous immune response.

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