The alteration in the surface of endothelial cells (EC) in response to cytokines is likely to be of great importance to the regulation of cell migration and thereby to the evolution of inflammatory processes. We have generated three mAb against cytokine inducible Ag on EC. Whereas mAb 1.2B6 and 6.5B5 were found to react with ELAM-1 and ICAM-1, respectively, mAb 1.4C3 reacted with a novel molecule that showed a different pattern of expression from ELAM-1 or ICAM-1 after stimulation of EC by TNF, IL-1, or LPS. Like ELAM-1, the 1.4C3 Ag was minimally expressed on resting EC, whereas ICAM-1 was moderately expressed. After stimulation with IL-1, TNF, or LPS, ELAM-1 expression was maximal after 4 to 6 h, 1.4C3 Ag after 6 to 10 h, and ICAM-1 after 10 to 24 h. The duration of 1.4C3 expression was intermediate between ELAM-1 and ICAM-1, and was more prolonged in response to TNF than IL-1 or LPS. Whereas the expression of the three Ag showed a similar dose response to varying concentrations of IL-1 or LPS, EC required a 10-fold higher concentration of TNF for half maximal expression of ELAM-1 than for half maximal expression of 1.4C3 Ag or ICAM-1 (5 ng/ml compared to 0.5 ng/ml). Of the three Ag, only ICAM-1 was enhanced by IFN-gamma. SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions showed the 1.4C3 Ag to migrate as a single band with a relative molecular mass of approximately 95 kDa. mAb 1.4C3 adds to our understanding of the kinetics of the EC response to different cytokines and will be useful in studying the regulation of EC activation. Furthermore, the 1.4C3 molecule may have an important role in leukocyte-EC interactions.