The role of leukocyte function-associated Ag-1 (LFA-1) in intercellular adhesion is well documented. Previously, we demonstrated that the LFA-1 molecule (CD11a/CD18) can also regulate the induction of proliferation of peripheral blood T cells. In these studies, we observed opposite effects of antibodies against CD11a (LFA-1-alpha-chain) or CD18 (LFA-1-beta-chain). Here, we determined the effects of anti-CD11a and anti-CD18 mAb on proliferation of cloned influenza virus-specific T cells. Anti-CD18 mAb had similar inhibiting effects on the proliferative response of T cell clones induced by immobilized anti-CD3 mAb as it had on the response of peripheral blood T cells. In contrast to its costimulatory effect on resting peripheral blood T cells, anti-CD11a mAb did not increase the proliferation of cloned T cells. Similar differences in effects of anti-CD11a and anti-CD18 mAb were observed when proliferation of the T cell clones was induced by immobilized anti-TCR mAb. When proliferation was induced by influenza virus presented by monocytes as APC, both anti-CD11a and anti-CD18 mAb inhibited T cell proliferation. However, when EBV-transformed B cells were used as APC, neither anti-CD11a nor anti-CD18 mAb inhibited proliferation. These results demonstrate that the effects of antibodies against CD11a (LFA-1-alpha) or CD18 (LFA-1-beta) on T cell proliferation depend on 1) the stage of activation of the T cells, 2) the activation stimulus and its requirement for intercellular adhesion involving LFA-1, and 3) the type of cell used to present Ag.

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