Several previous reports have described the surprising inability to detect murine CTL specific for glycoprotein D (gD), one of the important protective immunogens of HSV. Using slight variations of published procedures, we were able to show that the immune response to HSV in infected mice includes the generation of CTL specific for gD. C3H/OuJ (H-2k) mice were infected by injection in the hind footpads with purified HSV-1. Lymphocytes from draining lymph nodes were then isolated and shown to proliferate in response to, and to kill, transformed fibroblasts (H-2k) expressing HSV-1 gD. Two gD-specific T cell clones were isolated. One clone, designated CGD1, was shwon to be CD8+. This clone recognizes HSV-1 gD, but not HSV-2 gD, in the context of class I MHC molecules and kills the appropriate MHC-matched fibroblasts expressing HSV-1 gD. Unusual features of this cytolytic clone include augmentation by IL-4 of proliferative responses to Ag, inhibition of its lytic activity by a mAb specific for Thy-1 and recognition of infected fibroblasts in preference to infected lymphoblasts. The other clone, designated CGD3, was shown to be CD4+. This clone recognizes both HSV-1 gD and HSV-2 gD in the context of class II MHC molecules and has cytolytic potential.