Autoantibodies to cellular Ag are found in the sera of patients with systemic rheumatic diseases. Identification and characterization of the reactive autoantigens has helped clinicians to define subsets of rheumatic diseases and has assisted biologists in defining the function within the cell of these molecules. We have studied autoantibodies from patients that react with the centrosome (centriole) region of the cell. We found by immunoblotting techniques that these antibodies react with a 48-kDa protein. Additional immunoblotting and affinity purification studies indicate that the Ag may be the glycolytic enzyme enolase.