We developed a new mAb, anti-1A4, which recognizes an epitope on the CD27 molecule distinct from those recognized by several known anti-CD27 mAb. Although it has been suggested that the CD27 molecule is a T cell activation Ag, there was little direct evidence that the structure was involved in the T cell activation process. In this study, we showed that anti-1A4 inhibited anti-CD2, anti-CD3, mitogens, or soluble Ag-induced T cell proliferation as well as PWM-driven B cell IgG synthesis. Interestingly, anti-1A4 inhibited IL-2 secretion without affecting IL-2R expression. In addition, pretreatment of T cells with anti-1A4 inhibited the normally sustained intracellular calcium mobilization seen after triggering of T cells via the CD2 or CD3 pathways. Thus, binding of anti-1A4 to the CD27 molecule appears to induce a negative effect on T cell activation. This may be due to either a direct signal to T cells or the blocking of an interaction between T cells and accessory cells or both. These findings support the notion that the CD27 molecule plays an integral role in the process of T cell activation.

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