The selective destruction by an autoimmune process of the beta cells in the pancreas is the hallmark of the type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. What triggers islet cell-specific autoreactive T and B cells, however, remains unclear. Identification of the targets of the anti-islet cell autoantibodies frequently found in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients and analysis of their sequences should provide some insights into the nature of this disease. We have combined EBV transformation with CD40 activation of peripheral B cells from one patient with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus to isolate four B cell clones that secrete islet cell-specific autoantibodies, These four human monoclonal autoantibodies are of the IgG1 isotype, and they each recognize a different epitope of the glutamic acid decarboxylase enzyme. Analysis of their variable gene sequences shows that, while clonally unrelated, three of the four human monoclonal autoantibodies use a member of the VH4 family, and two have rearranged the same delta light chain variable gene. The IgG1 isotype of the four autoantibodies as well as the presence of somatic mutations in both heavy and light chain genes provide concrete evidence for their derivation by a T cell-dependent immune response.