Th2 cytokines are associated with the airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in allergic asthma and are potential targets for developing novel therapies. The efficacy of a mucosal cytokine-gene transfer approach was examined in a mouse model for allergic asthma. We showed first that mucosal IFN-gamma gene transfer results in a significant expression of IFN-gamma in the pulmonary epithelium. Significantly, this approach inhibits both Ag- and Th2-cell-induced pulmonary eosinophilia and airway hyperreactivity. These findings suggest that mucosal IFN-gamma gene transfer is effective in modulating pulmonary allergic responses and provides a basis for developing a novel therapeutic approach.