The MHC class II homologous proteins HLA-DMA and HLA-DMB function in the loading of peptides onto class II molecules. Like the class II genes, the HLA-DM genes contain upstream regulatory sequences similar to the S-X-Y regulatory region as well as additional putative regulatory sites. To determine whether the DM genes are regulated in a similar manner as class II genes, a series of in vivo and in vitro analyses was performed. Deletion analysis showed that expression from the DM promoters is dependent on the conserved S-X-Y region. The class II-specific transcription factors RFX and CIITA are also required for expression, as cell lines deficient in these factors failed to allow transcription from the DM promoters. In addition, in vivo footprint analysis showed the putative X and Y boxes to be occupied by transcription factors in wild-type B cells, but not in RFX-deficient B cells. In astrocytes, IFN-gamma treatment induced increased occupancy of these sites. None of the other putative regulatory sites was occupied in vivo, indicating that they may not be functional. Finally, gel shift analysis showed synergistic complex formation between proteins that bind to the putative X boxes of the DM genes, as is found for the DRA gene. Therefore, the DM genes share a common mechanism of regulation with the class II genes.

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