Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. IL-23 plays a critical role in its pathogenesis by inducing production of IL-17A from pathological Th17 cells and IL-17A–producing γδ T cells. However, the mechanisms regulating the IL-23/IL-17 axis in psoriasis are incompletely understood. In this study, we show that, in comparison with wild-type mice, those deficient in the CD96 immunoreceptor had lower production of IL-17A in their dermal γδ T cells and milder psoriasis-like dermatitis after topical application of imiquimod (IMQ). Moreover, transfer of CD96-deficient dermal γδ T cells into the skin of Rag1-deficient mice resulted in them developing milder IMQ-induced dermatitis compared with Rag1-deficient mice transferred with wild-type dermal γδ T cells. In γδ T cells in vitro, CD96 provides a costimulatory signal for the production of IL-23–induced IL-17A. In mice given an anti-CD96 neutralizing Ab, IL-17A production from dermal γδ T cells decreased and IMQ-induced dermatitis was milder compared with mice given a control Ab. These results suggest that CD96 is a potential molecular target for the treatment of psoriasis.

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