Obesity is considered the primary environmental factor associated with morbidity and severity of wide-ranging inflammatory disorders. The molecular mechanism linking high-fat or cholesterol diet to imbalances in immune responses, beyond the increased production of generic inflammatory factors, is just beginning to emerge. Diet cholesterol by-products are now known to regulate function and migration of diverse immune cell subsets in tissues. The hydroxylated metabolites of cholesterol oxysterols as central regulators of immune cell positioning in lymphoid and mucocutaneous tissues is the focus of this review. Dedicated immunocyte cell surface receptors sense spatially distributed oxysterol tissue depots to tune cell metabolism and function, to achieve the “right place at the right time” axiom of efficient tissue immunity.

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