Swine coronavirus–porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) with specific susceptibility to pigs has existed for decades, and recurrent epidemics caused by mutant strains have swept the world again since 2010. In this study, single-cell RNA sequencing was used to perform for the first time, to our knowledge, a systematic analysis of pig jejunum infected with PEDV. Pig intestinal cell types were identified by representative markers and identified a new tuft cell marker, DNAH11. Excepting enterocyte cells, the goblet and tuft cells confirmed susceptibility to PEDV. Enrichment analyses showed that PEDV infection resulted in upregulation of cell apoptosis, junctions, and the MAPK signaling pathway and downregulation of oxidative phosphorylation in intestinal epithelial cell types. The T cell differentiation and IgA production were decreased in T and B cells, respectively. Cytokine gene analyses revealed that PEDV infection downregulated CXCL8, CXCL16, and IL34 in tuft cells and upregulated IL22 in Th17 cells. Further studies found that infection of goblet cells with PEDV decreased the expression of MUC2, as well as other mucin components. Moreover, the antimicrobial peptide REG3G was obviously upregulated through the IL33-STAT3 signaling pathway in enterocyte cells in the PEDV-infected group, and REG3G inhibited the PEDV replication. Finally, enterocyte cells expressed almost all coronavirus entry factors, and PEDV infection caused significant upregulation of the coronavirus receptor ACE2 in enterocyte cells. In summary, this study systematically investigated the responses of different cell types in the jejunum of piglets after PEDV infection, which deepened the understanding of viral pathogenesis.