Secretion of IL-1β, a potent cytokine that plays a key role in gout pathogenesis, is regulated by inflammasomes. TRAF1 has been linked to heightened risk to inflammatory arthritis. In this article, we show that TRAF1 negatively regulates inflammasome activation to limit caspase-1 and IL-1β secretion in human and mouse macrophages. TRAF1 reduces linear ubiquitination and subsequent oligomerization of the adapter protein, ASC. i.p. injection of monosodium urate crystals resulted in increased inflammatory cell infiltrates and IL-1β production in Traf1 knockout mice compared with wild type littermates. In a model of monosodium urate crystal–induced gout, Traf1 knockout mice exhibited more swelling in the knee joints, increased infiltration of inflammatory cells, and higher expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In summary, this study identifies TRAF1 as a key regulator of IL-1β production and a potential therapeutic target for inflammasome-driven diseases such as gout.

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