Hematoimmunopoiesis takes place in the adult human bone marrow (BM), which is composed of heterogeneous niches with complex architecture that enables tight regulation of homeostatic and stress responses. There is a paucity of representative culture systems that recapitulate the heterogeneous three-dimensional (3D) human BM microenvironment and that can endogenously produce soluble factors and extracellular matrix that deliver culture fidelity for the study of both normal and abnormal hematopoiesis. Native BM lymphoid populations are also poorly represented in current in vitro and in vivo models, creating challenges for the study and treatment of BM immunopathology. BM organoid models leverage normal 3D organ structure to recreate functional niche microenvironments. Our focus herein is to review the current state of the art in the use of 3D BM organoids, focusing on their capacities to recreate critical quality attributes of the in vivo BM microenvironment for the study of human normal and abnormal hematopoiesis.

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