Cytokine storm syndromes (CSSs) are potentially fatal hyperinflammatory states that share the underpinnings of persistent immune cell activation and uninhibited cytokine production. CSSs can be genetically determined by inborn errors of immunity (i.e., familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis) or develop as a complication of infections, chronic inflammatory diseases (e.g., Still disease), or malignancies (e.g., T cell lymphoma). Therapeutic interventions that activate the immune system such as chimeric Ag receptor T cell therapy and immune checkpoint inhibition can also trigger CSSs in the setting of cancer treatment. In this review, the biology of different types of CSSs is explored, and the current knowledge on the involvement of immune pathways and the contribution of host genetics is discussed. The use of animal models to study CSSs is reviewed, and their relevance for human diseases is discussed. Lastly, treatment approaches for CSSs are discussed with a focus on interventions that target immune cells and cytokines.

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