Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are a novel therapeutic strategy that targets a specific gene and suppresses its expression. The cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) are a spectrum of autoinflammatory diseases characterized by systemic and tissue inflammation that is caused by heterozygous gain-of-function mutations in the nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) gene. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an Nlrp3-specific ASO treatment in CAPS. An Nlrp3-specific ASO was designed and tested in murine cell lines and bone marrow–derived macrophages (BMDMs) from wild-type and CAPS mouse models. Nlrp3 knock-in mice were treated in vivo with Nlrp3-specific ASO, survival was monitored, and expression of organ-specific Nlrp3 and IL-1β was measured. Nlrp3-specific ASO treatment of murine cell lines and BMDMs showed a significant downregulation of Nlrp3 and mature IL-1β protein expression. Ex vivo treatment of Nlrp3 mutant mouse-derived BMDMs with Nlrp3-specific ASO demonstrated significantly reduced IL-1β release. In vivo, Nlrp3-specific ASO treatment of Nlrp3 mutant mice prolonged survival, reduced systemic inflammation, and decreased tissue-specific expression of Nlrp3 and mature IL-1β protein. The results of this study demonstrate that Nlrp3-specific ASO treatment downregulates Nlrp3 expression and IL-1β release in CAPS models, suggesting ASO therapy as a potential treatment of CAPS and other NLRP3-mediated diseases.

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