Immunometabolism is an interdisciplinary field that focuses on the relationship between metabolic pathways and immune responses. Dysregulated immunometabolism contributes to many pathological settings, such as cytokine storm or immune tolerance. Aconitate decarboxylase 1 (ACOD1, also known as immunoresponsive gene 1), the mitochondrial enzyme responsible for catalyzing itaconate production, was originally identified as a bacterial LPS-inducible gene involved in innate immunity in mouse macrophages. We now know that the upregulation of ACOD1 expression in immune or nonimmune cells plays a context-dependent role in metabolic reprogramming, signal transduction, inflammasome regulation, and protein modification. The emerging function of ACOD1 in inflammation and infection is a double-edged sword. In this review, we discuss how ACOD1 regulates anti-inflammatory or proinflammatory responses in an itaconate-dependent or -independent manner. Further understanding of ACOD1 expression and function may pave the way for the development of precision therapies for inflammatory diseases.

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