Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) adoptive cell therapy is effective in treating malignant melanoma, but its success relies on the adequate ex vivo expansion of TIL. To assess correlates of TIL expansion, CD4+ and CD8+ TIL were analyzed by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing of acetylated histone 3. Patients were grouped into “TIL high” and “TIL low” based on division at the median number of TIL infused. Greater numbers of TIL infused correlated with longer overall survival, and increased frequencies of CD4+ cells infused were negatively correlated with the number of TIL infused. RNA-seq analysis of CD4+ TIL showed increases in Th2/Th17/regulatory T cell–related transcripts and pathways in the TIL-low group. Analysis of a public single-cell RNA-seq dataset validated findings that increased frequencies of CD4+ cells were negatively correlated with the number of TIL infused. TIL-low patients had significantly increased frequencies of CD4+ cells expressing ETS2 and OSM and trended toward increased expression of TNFRSF18.

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