Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) at the internal/external interface orchestrate the mucosal immune response, and IEC dysfunction has been linked to multiple inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we found that a member of the TNF-α–induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8 or TIPE) family called TIPE1 is indispensable for maintaining epithelial cell barrier integrity and homeostasis under inflammatory conditions. TIPE1-deficient mice, or chimeric mice that were deficient in TIPE1 in their nonhematopoietic cells, were more sensitive to dextran sulfate sodium–induced experimental colitis; however, TIPE1 deficiency had no impact on the development of inflammation-associated and sporadic colorectal cancers. Mechanistically, TIPE1 prevented experimental colitis through modulation of TNF-α–dependent inflammatory response in IECs. Importantly, genetic deletion of both TIPE1 and its related protein TNFAIP8 in mice led to the development of spontaneous chronic colitis, indicating that both of these two TIPE family members play crucial roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Collectively, our findings highlight an important mechanism by which TIPE family proteins maintain intestinal homeostasis and prevent inflammatory disorders in the gut.

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