Teleost B cells are primitive lymphocytes with both innate and adaptive immune functions. However, the heterogeneity and differentiation trajectory of teleost B cells remain largely unknown. In this study, the landscape of grass carp IgM+ (gcIgM+) B cells was revealed by single-cell RNA sequencing. The results showed that gcIgM+ B cells mainly comprise six populations: (im)mature B cells, innate B cells, proliferating B cells, plasma cells, CD22+ cells, and CD34+ cells, among which innate B cells and proliferating B cells were uncommon B cell subsets with, to our knowledge, new characteristics. Remarkably, three functional IgMs were discovered in grass carp, and a significant percentage of gcIgM+ B cells, especially plasma cells, expressed multiple Igμ genes (Igμ1, Igμ2, and/or Igμ3). More importantly, through single-cell sorting combined with Sanger sequencing, we found that distinct VHDJH recombination patterns of Igμ genes were present in single IgM+ B cells, indicating that individual teleost B cells might produce multiple Abs by coexpressing rearranged IgM subclass genes. Moreover, the percentage of IgM1highIgM2highIgM3high plasma cells increased significantly after bacterial infection, suggesting that individual plasma cells might tend to produce multiple IgMs to resist the infection in teleost fish. In summary, to our knowledge, this study not only helps to uncover the unique heterogeneity of B cells in early vertebrates but also provided significant new evidence supporting the recently proposed “one cell–multiple Abs” paradigm, challenging the classical rule of “one cell–one Ab.”

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