Osteosarcoma is a primary malignant bone tumor. Effective chemotherapy regimens for refractory disease are scarce, accounting for no improvement in survival. Immune-based cell therapies have emerged as novel alternatives. However, advancements with these therapies have been seen mostly when immune cells are armed to target specific tumor Ags. Recent studies identified cluster of differentiation 70 (CD70) as a promising target to osteosarcoma particularly because CD70 is highly expressed in osteosarcoma lung metastases (Pahl et al. 2015. Cancer Cell Int. 15: 31), and its overexpression by tumors has been correlated with immune evasion and tumor proliferation (Yang et al. 2007. Blood 110: 2537–2544). However, the limited knowledge of the overall CD70 expression within normal tissues and the potential for off-target effect pose several challenges (Flieswasser et al. 2022. J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 41: 12). Nonetheless, CD70-based clinical trials are currently ongoing and are preliminarily showing promising results for patients with osteosarcoma. The present review sheds light on the recent literature on CD70 as it relates to osteosarcoma and highlights the benefits and challenges of targeting this pathway.

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